Results: Dyads rapidly formed stable hierarchies (>85% within 3 days), and rank was independent of innate anxiety or locomotor characteristics. However, subordinates expressed more supported rears during the OFT. Subordinates also spent more time exploring novel contexts in 3CSA, regardless of whether the stimulus was social or inanimate. In contrast, dominants prioritized time in social chambers.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that there are sex differences in social behavior and microglial mitochondria function that are dependent upon both microglial inflammatory signaling as well as the organizational perinatal sex hormone surge. We are currently exploring the mechanisms through which perinatal sex hormones induce this sex-specific vulnerability to perinatal immune challenge.
It is widely accepted that as a result of increases in muscle carnosine concentration, the primary mechanism driving enhanced performance is the improvement in H+ buffering within skeletal muscle. Interestingly, humans also have carnosine within the brain, eye, and heart tissue [37, 109]. Therefore some initial data has explored the neuronal effects of carnosine [80, 110], as well as potential effects on cardiac tissue and heart rate . Future research exploring the effects of beta-alanine to induce changes in carnosine concentrations in these tissues would be beneficial, as well as explorations of potential physiological effects in humans. An additional potential function of carnosine has been linked to improvements in calcium sensitivity in muscle fibers [111, 112]. As a result of improved calcium sensitivity, there may be a direct impact on muscular performance. This mechanism has not yet been fully explored in humans. One recent paper by Hannah et al.  suggests that an improvement in calcium kinetics is not the mechanism by which beta-alanine influences performance. Future studies should further explore this mechanism. Lastly, there is a need for long-term safety data on beta-alanine supplementation as well as more information on potential benefits in special populations such as elderly and tactical athletes.
It's On Us. Harassment in the workplace will not stop on its own - it's on all of us to be part of the fight to stop workplace harassment. We cannot be complacent bystanders and expect our workplace cultures to change themselves. For this reason, we suggest exploring the launch of an It's on Us campaign for the workplace. Originally developed to reduce sexual violence in educational settings, the It's on Us campaign is premised on the idea that students, faculty, and campus staff should be empowered to be part of the solution to sexual assault, and should be provided the tools and resources to prevent sexual assault as engaged bystanders. Launching a similar It's on Us campaign in workplaces across the nation - large and small, urban and rural - is an audacious goal. But doing so could transform the problem of workplace harassment from being about targets, harassers, and legal compliance, into one in which co-workers, supervisors, clients, and customers all have roles to play in stopping such harassment.
We close this section by observing once more that, obviously, every workplace has some of these risk factors, and some workplaces have many of them. But the instinct of our Select Task Force members that we should devote time and resources to exploring and categorizing possible risk factors is borne out by what we have learned. The objective of identifying risk factors is not to suggest that having these risk factors will necessarily result in harassment in the workplace. A single risk factor may make a particular workplace more susceptible to harassment; more broadly, industries with numerous risk factors may be at greater risk of harassment in their workplaces and greater risk of the harassment not being identified and remedied.
For this reason, we suggest exploring an It's On Us campaign for the workplace. The It's On Us campaign for colleges and high school campuses is an outgrowth of the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault that recognized the need to change the cultures of educational institutions. The campaign is housed at Civic Nation, a non-profit organization focused on engaging millennials. The It's On Us campaign is premised on the idea that sexual assault is not just about a victim and a perpetrator. It calls upon everyone to do his or her part to be a part of the solution.
 Cortina & Berdahl, supra n. 14. The range of percentages results from five studies reviewed by Cortina & Berdhal. Three of the studies surveyed women only; two of the studies surveyed men and women. The five studies were: (1) Lilia M. Cortina, Hispanic Perspectives on Sexual Harassment and Social Support, 30 Personality & Soc. Psychol. Bull. 570 (2004) (working Latina women from different companies); (2) Caroline C. Cochran et al., Predictors of Responses to Unwanted Sexual Attention, 21 Psychol. of Women Q. 207 (1997) (male and female university staff and students); (3) Amy L. Culbertson & Paul Rosenfield, Assessment of Sexual Harassment in the Active-Duty Navy, 6 Mil. Psychol. 69 (1994) (exploring experiences of women in the Navy); (4) Kimberly T. Schneider et al., Job-Related and Psychological Effects of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Empirical Evidence from Two Organizations, 82 J. of Applied Psychol. 401 (1997) (working women from different companies); and (5) MSPB 1994, supra n. 16 (male and female federal employees). Because these percentages come from a review of five studies, they include surveys in which respondents were asked if they had experienced "sexual harassment" (without the term being defined), had experienced any behavior from a list of sexually-based behaviors ("come-ons"), or had experienced any of those sexually-based behaviors and/or any gender-based derogatory comments ("put downs").
As someone who has a family member who has a debilitating mental health disorder, I am also acutely aware of how that affects families and the people suffering from mental illness. In representing people who suffer form similar illnesses, I have tried to offer the care, respect, and attention that they deserve. I think that our legal system can and should do better for those suffering from mental health related issues. I look forward to exploring the feasibility of new laws offering alternatives like treatment, rehabilitation, and diversion, so that all involved parties can have a more just outcome. 2b1af7f3a8